Desalin's Constitution (Kreyòl and English)

Konstitisyon Enperyal Ayiti

Anperè Jan Jak Desalin siyen li 20 Me 1805
 Travay Lakou New York

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Listen to Lakou New York, Jan 1, 2013 two hour special on Haiti Independence Day. Featuring special guests speaking about Desalin’s 1805 Constitution.

Konstitisyon Enperyal Ayiti
Anperè Jan Jak Desalin siyen li 20 Me 1805
Konstitisyon 1805

 

Janjak Desalin, Haiti’s Founding Father

Konstitisyon Enperyal Ayiti (1805)

“Nan Palè Enperyal la nan Desalin, 20 me 1805, Dezyèm lannen Endepandans Ayiti:

“Noumenm ki sanble la a, A. Kristòf, Klèvo, Vènè, Gaba, Petyon, Jefra, Tousen-Brav, Rafayèl, Lalondri, Romen, Kapwa, Manyi, Kanje, Do, Maglwa Anbwaz, Yayou, Jan Lwi Franswa, Jeren, Ferou, Bazlè, Masyal Bès.

“Nan non pa nou ak nan non pèp Ayisyen an ki legalman mete nan men nou tout enstitisyon leta yo epi ban nou dwa pale pou li.

“Devan Granmèt la, kote nou tout ki gen pou n mouri yon jou egal ego, limenm ki kreye tout kalte diferan kreyati nan 4 pwen kadino pou l montre jan li gran, pou l montre fòs li nan jan l ka fè sa l pito jan l pito;

“Devan lanati, kote san rezon epi pou si tèlman lontan nou t ap viv tankou pitit deyò:

“Nou deklare tout sa k di nan Konstitisyon sila a se volonte nou, se dizon nou, se batman kè nou epi se volonte tout pèp Ayisyen an;

“Nou renmèt Konstitisyon sila a bay Majeste Anperè Jan Jak Desalin, limenm ki te ban nou libète, pou l bay dokiman sila a benediksyon l pou tout sa k di ladan l ka fèt.

Deklarasyon Preliminè

Atik 1: Pèp k ap viv sou zile sila a yo te konn rele Sendomeng nan deside pou l fòme yon peyi lib ki granmoun nan tout kò l, ki pa bese tèt li devan pyès lòt puisans linivè. Peyi sila a ap pote non Anpi Ayiti.

Atik 2: Koze yo bay pou lesklavaj la kaba. Jamè, ogranjamè li pa p janm tounen sou moun ankò.

Atik 3: Tout sitwayen Anpi Ayiti se frè ki egal ego devan lalwa; Sèl lòt tit, avantaj, oswa privilèj ki ka janm egziste se rekonesans ak rekonpans nan sèvis libète ak endepandans peyi a.

Atik 4: Se yon sèl lwa ki genyen pou tout moun, kit se pou l pini kit se pou l pwoteje.

Atik 5: Leta pa ka sèvi ak lalwa pou regle yon bagay ki te fèt anvan lwa a te egziste.

Atik 6: Byen yon moun se yon bagay ki sakre. Se gwo pinisyon pou moun ki ta vyole propriyete prive yon lòt moun.

Atik 7: Lè yon sitwayen Ayisyen kite peyi d Ayiti epi natiralize nan yon peyi etranje moun sila a pa yon sitwayen Ayisyen ankò. Pinisyon pou zak sila a se lanmò epi leta dwe sezi tout byen moun sila a genyen nan peyi a. Yon lòt okazyon yon sitwayen Ayisyen pèdi sitwayènte l se lè lajistis kondane w pou gwo krim majè.

Atik 8: Lè yon sitwayen Ayisyen fè bankrout oswa fayit ekonomik leta gen pou mete stati sitwayen li an sispansyon.

Featured HLLN Post on Jan 1, 2013 Haiti Independence Day:
Desalin’s Constitution – (Kreyòl and English) – VIV DESALIN! Long Live the Haitian Revolution!

Preliminary DeclarationsArticle 9. No person is worth of being a Haitian who is not a good father, good son, a good husband, and especially a good soldier.Atik 9: Yon bon Ayisyen se yon bon papa, li yon bon pitit, li yon bon mari, epi sa k pi enpòtan pase tout lòt bagay fòk li yon bon sòlda.Art. 11. All citizens are required to have a trade.Atik 11:
Tout sitwayen oblije genyen yon metye.Article 12.
No whiteman of whatever nation he may be, shall put his foot on this territory with the title of master or proprietor, neither shall he in future acquire any property therein.Atik 12:
Okenn blan, kèlkeswa nasyonalite l, pa gen dwa pilè tè peyi a kòm mèt esklav oswa propriyetè epi blan pa gen dwa janm gen propriyete nan peyi a.

Art. 14:
…the Haytians shall hence forward be known only by the generic appellation of Blacks.

Atik 14: …Apati jodi a nou konsidere tout Ayisyen se moun nwa nou ye.

Of Government

Atik 23: Se nan eleksyon n ap chwazi yon Anperè apre Jan Jak Desalin. Pitit Anperè a pa p vin Anperè senpman paske yo se pitit li.

Article 23: The crown is elective not hereditary. The children of Emperor Jan Jak Desalin cannot ascend to power merely because they are his children. The next emperor shall be elected. (HLLN Note: Even Desalin was elected. He was elected by the generals as emperor.)

Sou Relijyon

Atik 50: Lalwa pa bay okenn relijyon pye sou okenn lòt.

Atik 51: Tout moun gen dwa pratike relijyon yo pito.

Atik 52: Leta pa p pran responsabilite okenn relijyon oswa okenn responsab yon relijyon.

Of Worship

50. The law admits of no predominant religion.

51. The freedom of worship is tolerated.

52. The state does not provide for the maintenance of any religious institution, nor or any minister.

General Dispositions:

Art. 20.The national colours shall be black and red.

Atik 20: Koulè drapo peyi a se nwa ak wouj.

Article 21:Agriculture, as it is the first, the most noble, and the most useful of all the arts, shall be honored and protected.

Atik 21: Leta pran angajman pou l onore epi pwoteje agrikilti ki se travay ki pi enpòtan, ki gen plis lonè, epi ki pi itil sosyete a.

Article 22: Commerce, the second source of the prosperity of states, will not admit of any impediment; it ought to be favored and specially protected.

Atik 22:
Anyen pa dwe fèt pou bare lawout ak komès ki se dezyèm sous pwosperite tout peyi.

Article 28. At the first firing of the alarm gun, the cities will disappear and the nation rise.

Atik 28: Depi premye kout kanno lalam nan tire tout vil yo ap disparèt epi nanchon an toutantye ap leve kanpe.

Atik 9: Yon bon Ayisyen se yon bon papa, li yon bon pitit, li yon bon mari, epi sa k pi enpòtan pase tout lòt bagay fòk li yon bon sòlda.

Atik 10: Papa ak manman pa gen dwa dezerite pitit yo sou okenn pretèks.

Atik 11: Tout sitwayen oblije genyen yon metye.

Atik 12: Okenn blan, kèlkeswa nasyonalite l, pa gen dwa pilè tè peyi a kòm mèt esklav oswa propriyetè epi blan pa gen dwa janm gen propriyete nan peyi a.

Atik 13: Atik 12 la pa kenbe pou fanm blanch ki natiralize Ayisyen ak pitit yo genyen oswa yo pral genyen. Atik 12 la pa kenbe tou pou Alman ak Polonè yo ki natiralize Ayisyen.

Atik 14: Chèf leta a se papa fanmi Ayisyen. Pa dwe gen okenn distenksyon koulè nan mitan fanmi an. Apati jodi a nou konsidere tout Ayisyen se moun nwa nou ye.

Sou Anpi a

Atik 15: Anpi Ayiti fòme yon sèl kò. Anyen pa ka separe l. 6 Divizyon militè fòme teritwa a.

Atik 16: Se yon jeneral divizyon ki kòmande chak divizyon militè.

Atik 17: Chak jeneral divizyon yo ap fè travay yo endepandan de tout lòt yo. Y ap genyen pou reponn dirèkteman bay Anperè a oswa ak jeneral an chèf la ke Majeste a limenm li va nonme.

Atik 18: Zile Samana, Latòti, Lagonav, Kayimit, Ilavach, Lasayòn, ak lòt ti zile avwazinant yo fè pati entegral Anpi Ayiti.

Sou Gouvènman an

Atik 19: Gouvènman Ayiti chita nan men yon chèf ki pote tit Anperè epi Chèf alatèt lame a.

Atik 20: Se Jan Jak Desalin pèp la rekonèt kòm Anperè epi Chèf alatèt lame a. Se limenm ki te vanje krim nou t ap sibi yo epi ki te libere nou. Ni limenm, ni madanm li, Enperatris la, nou rele yo Majeste.

Atik 21: Majeste yo sakre epi pèsonn pa gen dwa leve men sou yo.

Atik 22: Leta gen yon montan fiks pou l peye Majeste a ak Enperatris la. Enperatris la ap kontinye jwenn kòb sila a menm aprè Anperè a ta va mouri.

Atik 23: Se nan eleksyon n ap chwazi yon Anperè apre Jan Jak Desalin. Pitit Anperè a pa p vin Anperè senpman paske yo se pitit li.

Atik 24: Tout pitit Anperè a rekonèt kòm pitit li ap jwenn yon montan chak ane.

Atik 25: Menm jan ak tout lòt sitwayen Ayisyen, pitit gason Anperè a ap genyen pou pase de grad an grad nan lame peyi a ak sèl diferans ke y ap rantre nan grad katriyèm demibrigad.

Atik 26: Se Anperè a limenm ki va deside jan l pito ki moun k ap vini apre li nan pozisyon an, anvan oswa apre lanmò li.

Atik 27: Nan moman moun k ap vini apre Anperè a va pran pouvwa a, limenm tou l ap genyen pou l kòmanse touche yon montan fiks.

Atik 28: Ni Anperè a, ni okenn nan chèf ki vini apre li yo pa p janm gen dwa, nenpòt ki jan ni sou okenn pretèks keseswa pou yo fòme yon ekip pou proteksyon oswa antouraj pèsonèl yo, kit yo ta rele l yon gad donè oswa nenpòt lòt bagay.

Atik 29: Nenpòt chèf ki ta vini apre Anperè Desalin ki pa ta respekte sa ki di nan atik nimewo 28 la oswa ki pa ta suiv egzanp Anperè Desalin trase a, oswa prensip ki tabli nan Konstitisyon sila a, n ap konsidere l epi deklare l an gè kont tout sosyete a.

Nan ka sila a konseye deta yo ap rasanble yo pou yo deklare manda chèf sila a fini epi pou yo chwazi nan pami yo sila a ki plis merite responsabilite a. Nan ka chèf òlalwa a pa ta vle aksepte desizyon sila a jeneral yo ki fòme konsèy deta a ap rele pèp la ak lame a pou yo pote lamenfòt pou libète kapab toujou rete sèl kòk chante sou tè sila a.

Atik 30: Se Anperè a ki fè, ki siyen, epi ki gaye tout lwa. Selon volonte li, li nonmen epi l revoke tout minis yo, jeneral an chèf lame a, tout konseye deta yo, jeneral yo ak tout lòt ajan k ap travay pou Anpi a, tout ofisye lame ki sou tè a ak tout sa k sou lanmè, tout manm administrasyon lokal yo, tout komisè gouvènman nan tribinal yo, jij yo ak tout lòt anplwaye leta yo.

Atik 31: Se Anperè a ki fè bidjè leta, li kontrole tout kòb k ap rantre ak tout depans. Li responsab fabrikasyon lajan. Se limenm sèl ki gen dwa pase lòd mete lajan deyò, li deside ki valè kòb la genyen epi ki jan kòb la fèt.

Atik 32: Se Anperè a sèl ki gen pouvwa fè lapè oswa fè lagè. Se li sèl ki ka angaje peyi a nan relasyon politik epi siyen kontra.

Atik 33: Anperè a responsab sekirite nan tout kwen anndan peyi a epi l responsab defann peyi a. Se li ki gen dwa deside selon volonte li ki jan l ap epapiye lame peyi a ni sou tè peyi a ni sou lanmè.

Atik 34: Si ta gen konplo k ap mare pou mete latwoublay nan peyi a, konplo kont Konstitisyon an oswa konplo kont Anperè a limenm, se responsabilite Anperè a pou l fè arete malfektè yo ak tout konplis yo. Se yon konsèy espesyal ki va gen pou jije yo.

Atik 35: Se Majeste a sèl ki gen dwa padone yon moun tribinal jije epi desid k koupab. Se li sèl ki gen dwa retire nan pinisyon yon jij bay.

Atik 36: Anperè a pa gen dwa fè mannigèt pou l al pran teritwa lòt peyi ni pou l al mete latwoublay nan koloni etranjè.

http://www.ezilidanto.com/zili/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/player.swf
Civil Alert interview (177:03min): Ezili Dantò of the Haitian Lawyers Leadership Network (HLLN) speak about the Haitian Revolution and its hidden history, January 3, 2013, Civil Alert/BlogTalkRadio.

Atik 37: Tout zak leta ap fè dwe fèt ak dizon sila a: “Anperè Ayiti epi Chèf alatèt lame a, ak lagras Bondje epi lalwa konstitisyonèl leta a.”

Sou Konsèy Deta a

Atik 38: Jeneral divizyon yo ak jeneral brigad yo tou manm konsèy deta a epi se yo tout ansanm ki fòme konsèy sila a.

Sou Minis yo

Atik 39: Anpi an ap genyen 2 minis ak yon sekretè deta:

Ministè finans la ki genyen depatman enteryè ladan li;

Ministè lagè a ki genyen depatman lanmè a ladan l.

Sou Minis Finans la ak sa k konsène Enteryè peyi a

Atik 40: Ministè sila a responsab administrasyon trezò piblik peyi a, òganizasyon chak grenn administrasyon, distribisyon lajan ki pou disponib pou minis lagè a ak lòt fonksyonè leta yo, depans leta yo, direktiv pou jere kontabilite administrasyon ak moun k ap peye moun nan chak divizyon yo, agrikilti, komès, lekòl, sistèm pou asire jan pou mezire bagay epi konbyen yon bagay peze, mwayen pou evalye popilasyon peyi a, tout sa peyi a pwodui ak tout byen peyi a kit se sa n ap kenbe pou tèt pa nou ki se sa n ap vann deyò, tè pou anfème, prizon, lopital, antretyen wout, bak yo, salin yo, faktori yo, biwo dwàn yo, epi finalman kontwòl ak fabrikasyon lajan, epi fè respekte lwa ak direktiv gouvènman an nan domèn sila a.

Sou Minis Lagè a ak Lanmè a

Atik 41: Travay ministè sila a se pou sanble, òganize, enspekte, siveye, disipline, jere lame sou tè a epi sou lanmè a, epi tout deplasman lame a se sou kont li yo ye. Li responsab tout moun k ap travay nan domèn sila a, tout zouti lagè, tout ranfò, tout fò, tout poud ak tout kanno. Li la pou l kenbe rejis tout zak ak tout dekrè Anperè a, pou l sikile yo bay lame a epi pou l asire l tout sa Anperè a di, tout desizyon Anperè a rive fèt kòmsadwa. Minis Lagè ak Lanmè a gen devwa pou l rapòte bay konsèy espesyal yo tout sa k pa sa li konnen k fèt nan mitan militè yo epi l gen pou l voye je sou komisè lagè yo ak ofisye sante yo.

Atik 42: Minis yo responsab tout move bagay yo menm yo fè kont sekirite peyi a ak konstitisyon an. Yo responsab tout atak ki fèt sou propriyete prive yon moun epi libète chak moun. Chak 3 mwa yo gen pou yo renmèt yon rapò bay Anperè a sou tout depans ki gen pou fèt, sou fason lajan k te nan men yo te depanse, epi sou tout abi ak dezòd ki te fofile nan divès branch administrasyon peyi a.

Atik 43: Lalwa pa gen dwa fè okenn pousuit kriminèl kont yon minis kit li an fonksyon, kit li pa nan djòb la ankò pou bagay ki te pase nan administrasyon li san dizon pèsonèl Anperè a.

Sou Sekretè Deta a

Atik 44: Sekretè Deta a responsab ekri, pou l fè kopi, epi pou l gaye lwa, direktiv, pwoklamasyon, ak desizyon Anperè a; Li travay kole kole ak Anperè a nan zafè relasyon ak peyi etranje. Se li ki koresponn ak minis yo pou l resevwa nan men yo tout sa y ap mande Anperè a, petisyon ak nenpòt lòt bagay yo vle renmèt li. Tout kesyon tribinal yo genyen pou Anperè a se limenm tou ki resevwa yo. Se responsabilite l tou pou renmèt bay minis yo tout jijman ak tout dokiman Anperè a deside siyen.

Sou Tribinal yo

Atik 45: Pèsonn pa gen dwa anpeche dwa chak moun genyen pou yo regle yon konfli alamyab, san koze a pa bezwen ale devan leta. Moun ki an konfli yo gen dwa pou yo menm yo chwazi moun yo vle k tranche koze a. Lalwa ap rekonèt tout desizyon yo rive antann yo sou li.

Atik 46: Ap genyen yon jijdepè nan chak komin; Jijdepè sila a pa gen dwa deside sou okenn koze ki depase valè 200 goud. Nan ka pati ki an konfli yo pa ta rive antann yo nan tribinal jijdepè a, yo chak va ale pote koze a devan tribinal ki nan zòn pa yo.

Atik 47: Ap genyen 6 tribinal nan diferan vil sila yo:
Sen Mak, Okap, Pòtoprens, Okay, Ansavo, ak Pòdepè.
Se Anperè a ki va deside fason tribinal sa yo va òganize, konbyen y ap ye, bagay yo gen dwa deside sou yo, epi teritwa chak tribinal sa yo ap kapab responsab.
Tribinal yo gen dwa regle tout dosye sivil.

Atik 48: Se konsèy espesyal ki va gen pou jere pwoblèm militè epi se lòt kalite jijman ki va fèt pou regle pwoblèm sa yo. Se Anperè a ki va deside ki jan konsèy espesyal sa yo va òganize epi lè pa gen antant sou desizyon k soti nan konsèy sila yo se Anperè a limenm ki va tranche.

Atik 49: Gen lwa espesyal ki va fèt pou jere kesyon notarya epi tout sa k gen rapò ak ofisye deta sivil yo.

Sou Relijyon

Atik 50: Lalwa pa bay okenn relijyon pye sou okenn lòt.

Atik 51: Tout moun gen dwa pratike relijyon yo pito.

Atik 52: Leta pa p pran responsabilite okenn relijyon oswa okenn responsab yon relijyon.

Sou Administrasyon

Atik 53: Chak divizyon militè ap genyen yon administrasyon prensipal ladan l. Se ministè finans la k ap responsab òganizasyon ak kontwòl administrasyon sila a.

Dispozisyon Jeneral

Atik 1: Se Anperè a ak Enperatris la ki va deside ki moun k ap la ansanm ak yo pou okipe bezwen yo, ki jan pou yo boule ak moun sa yo epi ki jan moun sa yo ap touche pou travay yo.

Atik 2: Apre Anperè ki la jodi a va mouri, lè ta gen yon nesesite pou pase men sou Konstitisyon an, se konsèy deta a ki va rasanble pou fè sa epi se moun ki gen plis laj nan mitan konsèy la ki va prezidan konsèy la.

Atik 3: Se Anperè a ki va fòme epi prezide konsèy espesyal pou jije krim wot trayizon ak krim minis yo ak jeneral yo ta va komèt.

Atik 4: Lame se yon enstitisyon obeyisan. Li annik suiv lòd. Pa gen plas pou okenn diskisyon ak deba fèt nan mitan yon kò ki ame.

Atik 5: Fòk yon dosye parèt devan yon tribinal pou yon jijman rive fèt sou li.

Atik 6: Kay yon moun se yon azil pyès lòt moun pa gen dwa vyole.

Atik 7: Sof si mèt kay la limenm envite w rantre sèl lòt lè ou ka rantre anndan kay yon moun se si kay la pran dife, si gen inondasyon, oswa si gen yon lòd pou sa ki soti nan men Anperè a oswa nenpòt lòt otorite legal.

Atik 8: Si w touye yon moun oumenm tou ou merite lanmò.

Atik 9: Toutotan Anperè a ba bay dizon li okenn jijman pou touye yon moun pa gen dwa aplike.

Atik 10: Pinisyon pou yon moun ki vole yon bagay ap depann sou sikonstans anvan, pandan, epi apre vòl la.

Atik 11: Nenpòt etranje k ap viv nan peyi a gen menm responsabilite ak tout Ayisyen pou l respekte tout lwa peyi a.

Atik 12: Leta peyi a otomatikman epi san pale anpil sezi tout propriyete k te pou yon blan franse.

Atik 13: Tout Ayisyen k t achte yon pwopriyete nan men yon blan franse epi l pa t ko fin peye l, jodi a se leta Ayisyen li dwe rès kòb la.

Atik 14: Maryaj se yon zak sivil leta otorize.

Atik 15: Lalwa rekonèt moun ki marye ka divòse nan sikonstans lalwa prevwa epi lalwa deside yo.

Atik 16: Ap genyen yon lwa espesyal pou tout timoun ki fèt andeyò maryaj.

Atik 17: Fòk yon moun respekte chèf li, pou l suiv lòd li, epi disiplin se yon bagay ki esansyèl.

Atik 18: Leta gen pou l pibliye yon kòd penal epi tout moun dwe suiv li san gade dèyè.

Atik 19: Ap genyen yon lekòl leta nan chak divizyon militè pou lenstriksyon jènès la

Atik 20: Koulè drapo peyi a se nwa ak wouj.

Atik 21: Leta pran angajman pou l onore epi pwoteje agrikilti ki se travay ki pi enpòtan, ki gen plis lonè, epi ki pi itil sosyete a.

Atik 22: Anyen pa dwe fèt pou bare lawout ak komès ki se dezyèm sous pwosperite tout peyi.

Atik 23: Chak divizyon militè ap genyen yon tribinal komès. Se Anperè a ki va chwazi manm tribinal sila yo ki va soti nan pami negosyan yo.

Atik 24: Tout tranzaksyon komès dwe fèt ak bòn fwa epi ak bon jan dizon.

Atik 25: Gouvènman an pran responsabilite sekirite epi pwoteksyon tout peyi ki pa nan paspouki ak peyi zanmi ki deside fè komès ak Ayiti depi yo menm yo respekte tout règ jwèt epi tout mès peyi a.

Atik 26: Leta pran responsabilite pwoteje kontwa epi tout machandiz etranje k ap fè komès nan peyi a.

Atik 27: Ap genyen fèt nasyonal pou fete Endepandans peyi a, fèt Anperè a ak madanm li, fèt Agrikilti, epi fèt Konstitisyon an.

Atik 28: Depi premye kout kanno lalam nan tire tout vil yo ap disparèt epi nanchon an toutantye ap leve kanpe.

Noumenm responsab ki siyen dokiman klè epi kare sila a ki genyen ladan l dwa sakre tout moun ta dwe jwi epi tout devwa sitwayen yo blije akonpli, nou renmèt li nan men majistra yo, papa yo ak manman yo ki responsab fanmi yo, sitwayen yo, ak lame a pou yo voye je sou li epi pwoteje l;

Nou ankouraje neve nou yo respekte l epi n ap voye yon gwo kout chapo bay zanmi libète toupatou, moun ki gen bon kè yo nan tout peyi. Pou nou sa se yon siy klè ke gen yon bondye k bon tout bon, ki limenm atravè lwa pa li ki la pou tout tan te ban nou limyè ak chimen pou n te rive kase chenn lesklavaj epi pou n te rive vin yon pèp lib, sivilize, epi endepandan.

Nou siyen dokiman sila a nan non pa nou epi nan non tout sa yo nou reprezante yo.

Moun ki siyen:
Kristòf, Klèvo, Vènè, Gaba, Petyon, Jefra, Tousen-Brav, Rafayèl, Lalondri, Romen, Kapwa, Manyi, Kanje, Do, Maglwa Anbwaz, Yayou, Jan Lwi Franswa, Jeren, Ferou, Bazlè, Masyal Bès.

Dokiman sila a te parèt devan Anperè a pou msye te siyen li tou. Li te dakò bay dokiman an benediksyon li.

Lè n gade Konstitisyon sila a,
Noumenm, Jak Desalin, Anperè Premye peyi dAyiti epi Chèf alatèt lame a selon lagras Bondye fè nou epi selon lalwa konstitisyonèl leta,
Nou anbrase Konstitisyon sila a nètalkole, nou ba li benediksyon nou, epi nou mande pou tout sa k di ladan l fèt plop plop nan tout teritwa Anpi Ayiti;
Nou sèmante n ap respekte l epi nou sèmante pou n bay dènye gout san nou pou fè tout lòt moun respekte tout sa k di ladan l.

Nan Palè Enperyal la nan Desalin, 20 me 1805, Dezyèm lannen Endepandans Ayiti.

Siyen: Desalin

Moun ki rapòte dokiman an epi siyen l anba siyati Anperè Desalin
Siyen: Jis Chanlat
Sekretè Jeneral
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THE 1805 CONSTITUTION OF HAITI

SECOND CONSTITUTION OF HAITI (HAYTI) MAY 20, 1805.

PROMULGATED BY EMPEROR JACQUES I (DESSALINES)
Source: Webster.edu

The document below was printed in the New York Evening Post, July 15, 1805.

It was transcribed into the version below by Bob Corbett on April 4, 1999. I did not translate it, only transcribed. It was printed in 1805 in English. There is no mention in the newspaper who translated it. But, given that Henri Christophe was involved in the publication and that he had a strong liking of English, perhaps he is responsible. Unless American English has changed in this regard, I suspect a British translator given the use of “colour” and “honour” in the document.

It is not the complete constitution, but close. Articles 40-44 are absent. The document mentions that these are “interior regulations respecting the ministries,” otherwise it is all here.

I have followed the published document in all capitalization and grammar and noted a few spelling oddities.

The Constitution…was promulgated on May 20, 1805.

The reader should note that at this time the entire island of Hispaniola was under the rule of Haiti (Hayti), thus the mention of islands that are today part of the Dominican Republic.

The original newspaper is in the library of Bob Corbett.

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CONSTITUTION OF HAYTI

We, H. Christophe, Clerveaux, Vernet, Gabart, Petion, Geffard, Toussaint, Brave, Raphael, Roamin, Lalondridie, Capoix, Magny, Daut, Conge, Magloire, Ambrose, Yayou, Jean Louis Franchois, Gerin, Mereau, Fervu, Bavelais, Martial Besse…

As well in our name as in that of the people of Hayti, who have legally constituted us faithfully organs and interpreters of their will, in presence of the Supreme Being, before whom all mankind are equal, and who has scattered so many species of creatures on the surface of the earth for the purpose of manifesting his glory and his power by the diversity of his works, in the presence of all nature by whom we have been so unjustly and for so long a time considered as outcast children.

Do declare that the tenor of the present constitution is the free spontaneous and invariable expression of our hearts, and the general will of our constituents, and we submit it to the sanction of H.M. the Emperor Jacques Dessalines our deliverer, to receive its speedy and entire execution.

Preliminary Declaration.

Art. 1. The people inhabiting the island formerly called St. Domingo, hereby agree to form themselves into a free state sovereign and independent of any other power in the universe, under the name of empire of Hayti.

2. Slavery is forever abolished.

3. The Citizens of Hayti are brothers at home; equality in the eyes of the law is incontestably acknowledged, and there cannot exist any titles, advantages, or privileges, other than those necessarily resulting from the consideration and reward of services rendered to liberty and independence.

4. The law is the same to all, whether it punishes, or whether it protects.

5. The law has no retroactive effect.

6. Property is sacred, its violation shall be severely prosecuted.

7. The quality of citizen of Hayti is lost by emigration and naturalization in foreign countries and condemnation to corporal or disgrace punishments. The fist case carries with it the punishment of death and confiscation of property.

8. The quality of Citizen is suspended in consequence of bankruptcies and failures.

9. No person is worth of being a Haitian who is not a good father, good son, a good husband, and especially a good soldier.

10. Fathers and mothers are not permitted to disinherit their children.

11. Every Citizen must possess a mechanic art.

12. No whiteman of whatever nation he may be, shall put his foot on this territory with the title of master or proprietor, neither shall he in future acquire any property therein.

13. The preceding article cannot in the smallest degree affect white woman who have been naturalized Haytians by Government, nor does it extend to children already born, or that may be born of the said women. The Germans and Polanders naturalized by government are also comprized (sic) in the dispositions of the present article.

14. All acception (sic) of colour among the children of one and the same family, of whom the chief magistrate is the father, being necessarily to cease, the Haytians shall hence forward be known only by the generic appellation of Blacks.

Of the Empire

15. The Empire of Hayti is one and indivisible. Its territory is distributed into six military divisions.

16. Each military division shall be commanded by a general of division.

17. These generals of division shall be independent of one another, and shall correspond directly with the Emperor, or with the general in chief appointed by his Majesty.

18. The following Islands are integral parts of the Empire, viz. Samana, La Tortue, La Gonave, Les Cayemites, La Saone, L’Isle a Vache, and other adjacent islands.

Of the Government

19. The Government of Hayti is entrusted to a first Magistrate, who assumes the title of Emperor and commander in chief of the army.

20. The people acknowledge for Emperor and Commander in Chief of the Army, Jacques Dessalines, the avenger and deliverer of his fellow citizens. The title of Majesty is conferred upon him, as well as upon his august spouse, the Empress.

21. The person of their Majesties are sacred and inviolable.

22. The State will appropriate a fixed annual allowance to her Majesty the Empress, which she will continue to enjoy even after the decease of the Emperor, as princess dowager.

23. The crown is elective not hereditary.

24. There shall be assigned by the state an annual income to the children acknowledge by his Majesty the Emperor.

25. The male children acknowledged by the Emperor shall be obliged, in the same manner as other citizens, to pass successively from grade to grade, with this only difference, that their entrance into service shall begin at the fourth demi brigade, from the period of their birth.

26. The Emperor designates, in the manner he may judge expedient, the person who is to be his successor either before or after his death.

27. A suitable provision shall be made by the state to that successor from the moment of his accession to the throne.

28. The Emperor, and his successors, shall in no case and under no pretext whatsoever, have the right of attacking to their persons any particular or privileged body, whether as guards of honour, or under any other denomination.

29. Every successor deviating from the dispositions of the preceding article, or from the principles consecrated in the present constitution shall be considered and declared in a state of warfare against the society. In such a case, the counselors of state will assemble in order to pronounce his removal, and to chose one among themselves who shall be judged the most worthy of replacing him; and if it should happen that the said successor oppose the execution of this measure, authorized by law, the Generals, counselor of state, shall appeal to the people and the army, who will immediately give their whole strength and assistance to maintain Liberty.

30. The Emperor makes seals and promulgates the laws; appoints and revokes at will, the Ministers, the General in Chief for the Army, the Counselors of State, the Generals and other agents of the Empire, the sea offices, the members of the local administrations, the Commissaries of Government near the Tribunals, the judges, and other public functionaries.

31. The Emperor directs the receipts and expenditures of the State, Surveys the Mint of which he alone orders the emission, and fixes the weight and the model.

32. To him alone is reserved the power of making peace or war, to maintain political intercourse, and to form treaties.

33. He provides for the interior safety and for the defense of the State: and distributes at pleasure the sea and land forces.

34. In case of conspiracies manifesting themselves against the safety of the state, against the constitution, or against his person, the Emperor shall cause the authors or accomplices to be arrested and tried before a special Council.

35. His Majesty has alone the right to absolve a criminal and commute his punishment.

36. The Emperor shall never form any enterprize (sic) with the views of making conquests, nor to disturb the peace and interior administration of foreign colonies.

37. Every public act shall be made in these terms: “THE EMPEROR I. OF HAYTI, AND COMMANDER IN CHIEF OF THE ARMY BY THE GRACE OF GOD, AND THE CONSTITUTIONAL LAW OF THE STATE.”

Of the Council of State.

38. The Generals of Division and of Brigade, are of right members of the Council of State, and they compose it.

Of the Ministers

39. There shall be in the Empire two ministers and a secretary of state. The ministers of finances having the department of the interior, and the minister of war having the marine department.

40-44. [Interior regulations respecting the ministry.]

Of the Tribunals.

45. No one can interfere with the right which every individual has of being judged amicably by arbitrators of his own choosing whose decisions shall be acknowledged legal.

46. There shall be a justice of peace in each commune. Any suit amounting to more than one hundred dollars shall not come within his cognizance. And when the parties cannot conciliate themselves at his tribunal, they may appeal to the tribunals of their respective districts.

47. There shall be six tribunals established in the cities hereafter designated, viz. At St. Marc, at the Cape, at Port au Prince, Aux Cayes, Lanse-a-Vaux, and Port-de-Paix… The Emperor determines their organization, their number, their competence and the territory forming the district of each. These tribunals take cognizance of all affairs purely civil.

48. Military crimes are submitted to special councils and to particular forms of judgement.

49. Particular laws shall be made for the national transactions, and respecting the civil officers of the state.

Of Worship

50. The law admits of no predominant religion.

51. The freedom of worship is tolerated.

52. The state does not provide for the maintenance of any religious institution, nor or any minister.

Of the Administration

53. There shall be in each military division a principal administration, whose organization and inspection belongs essentially to the minister of finances.

General Dispositions.

Act. 1. To the Emperor and Empress belong the choice, the salary, and the maintenance of the persons composing their court.

2. After the decease of the reigning Emperor, when a revision of the constitution shall have been judged necessary, the council of state will assemble for that purpose, and shall be presided by the oldest member.

3. The crimes of high treason, the dilapidations of the ministers and generals shall be judged by a special council called and presided by the emperor.

4. The armed force is essentially obedient: no armed body can deliberate.

5. No person shall be judged without having been legally heard in his defense.

6. The house of every citizen is an inviolable asylum.

7. It cannot be entered but in case of conflagration, inundation, reclamation from the interior, or by virtue of an order from the emperor, or from any other authority legally constituted.

8. He deserves death who gives it to his fellow.

9. Every judgment to which the pain of death or corporal punishment is annexed shall not be carried into execution until it has been confirmed by the emperor.

10. Theft shall be punished according to the circumstances which may have preceded, accompanied or followed it.

11. Every stranger inhabiting the territory of Hayti shall be, equally with the Haytians, subject to the correctional and criminal laws of the country.

12. All property which formerly belonged to any white Frenchmen, is incontestably and of right confiscated to the use of the state.

13. Every Haytian, who, having purchased property from a white Frenchman, may have paid part of the purchase money stipulated in the act of sale, shall be responsible to the domains of the state for the remainder of the sum due.

14. Marriage is an act purely civil, and authorized by the government.

15. The law authorises (sic) divorce in all cases which shall have been previously provided for and determined.

16. A particular law shall be issued concerning children born out of wedlock.

17. Respect for the chiefs, subordination and discipline are rigorously necessary.

18. A penal code shall be published and severely observed.

19. Within each military division a public school shall be established for the instruction of youth.

20. The national colours shall be black and red.

21. Agriculture, as it is the first, the most noble, and the most useful of all the arts, shall be honored and protected.

22. Commerce, the second source of the prosperity of states, will not admit of any impediment; it ought to be favored and specially protected.

23. In each military division a tribunal of commerce shall be found, whose members shall be chosen by the Emperor from the class of merchants.

24. Good faith and integrity in commercial operations shall be religiously maintained.

25. The government assures safety and protections to neutral nations and friends who may be desirous of establishing a commercial intercourse with this island, they conforming to the regulations and customs of the country.

26. The counting houses and the merchandize of foreigners shall be under the safeguard and guarantee of the state.

27. There shall be national festivals for celebrating independence, the birth day of the emperor and his august spouse, that of agriculture and of the constitution.

28. At the first firing of the alarm gun, the cities will disappear and the nation rise.

We, the undersigned, place under the safeguard of the magistrates, fathers and mothers of families, the citizens, and the army the explicit and solemn covenant of the sacred rights of man and the duties of the citizen.

We recommend it to our successors, and present it to the friends of liberty, to philanthropists of all countries, as a signal pledge of the Divine Bounty, who in the course of his immortal decrees, has given us an opportunity of breaking our fetters, and of constituting ourselves a people, free civilized and independent.

Signed

H. Christophe, & (as before)

Having seen the present constitution:

We, Jacques Dessalines, Emperor I of Hayti, and Commander in Chief of the Army, by the grace of God, and the constitutional law of the state, Accept it wholly and sanction it, that it may receive, with the least possible delay, its full and entire execution throughout the whole of our Empire. And we swear to maintain it and to cause it to be observed in it integrity to the last breath of our life.

At the Imperial Palace of Dessalines, the 20th May 1805 second year of the Independence of Hayti, and of our reign the first.

DESSALINES

By the Emperor, Juste Chanlatte, Sec. Gen.

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Madi Premye Janvye 2013 / Tuesday January 1st, 2013: Emisyon Espesyal 2 zèd tan pou Premye Janvye ak Premye Konstitisyon Ayiti a, Konstitisyon 1805 la: Im Nasyonal la ak Aluption “Ti Flit” Cadet; “Mèsi Papa Desalin” – Felix Morisseau Leroi; Repòtaj Korespondan Lakou NY lakay Wilner Altidor nan Robino; Refleksyon sou Desalin ak Konstitisyon 1805 la ansanm ak Èzilidantò, Jean Yves Blot, ak Mèt Bano; Liy ouvè ak oditè yo

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